Pronoun are means in Indonesia “kata pengganti Noun” .

Example :

1. personal pronoun

2. demonstrative pronoun

3. relative pronoun

4. interrogative pronoun

5. reflexive pronoun

6. reprocal pronoun

7. indenfintive pronoun

next page…… (more)


In this pronoun shown the first person, second person, third person.

The structure :

First Person

  Singular Plural
Nominative I We
Possessive My- mine Our-ours
Objective me Us

Second person

nominative thou You
Possesive They-thine Your-yours
Objective there you

Third person

nominative He she it they
Possessive his her-hers It their-theirs
objective Him her It them

As shown that Nominative must placed before verb.

A possessive words it use by noun at the front .

Ex :  my book, your pens, his dog

But, a possessive words : mine, ours, thine, yours, his, etc. the means of noun is belong in that possessive words.

Ex: that is mine, not yours

Mine book  or yours book (incorrect)

An objective pronoun it must place after Verb or after preposition in sentences like objective noun. Also, ex:

  • He gives me a book
  • He does not want to speak with me
  • The man who called yesterday has give me a book

Note :

Pronoun  “thou-thy-thine-thee” are not use in English modern now. Its only in the old book and literature. Me uses subject to clear.

The means of sentences, ex : “ Me took it “

*push voice in the word “ME”



Those pronouns are the point back to some hors going before which are called their antecedents. They are this, these, that, those, some, such, one, ones, former, latter.

When these are used to point out the nouns they are called Demonstrative Adjective and when they are used in place of nouns, they are called Demonstrative Pronoun.

Ex: The price of gold is dearer than that of silver that in here means the price.

§  For “former and Latter”

Ex  : Juma’ari n cholis will go to America. The former is my friend and he latter is my cousin.

§  One use for singular and ones use for plural.

Ex: – there are many books in the shop but the good ones have been sold out.

-I saw men here last night but there is no one today

§  None use for Demonstrative pronoun of singular or plural

Ex: -you have ten books but I have none.

-none will come to my house today.



Relative pronoun are also called conjunctive pronoun because it relate two sentences. Only 4 words, they are : who, which, that, and what. Among that 4 words, who and which have 3 cases.

The words: as…as; -same as; – not so…as;such as ; and but are belong to relative pronoun.

Ex : Mr. Dolla is my boy friend

He lives now in Malang

If he changed nominative case, so the relative pronoun must who if him must use whom, if his must use whose.

So, from the example :

  • Mr. Dolla who is my boy friend lives in Malang
  • Mr. Dolla who lives in Malang is my boy friend
  • Mr. Dolla is my boy friend who lives in Malang



Ex: Mr. Agus is my friend

I will teach him English

  • Mr. Agus whom I will teach English is my friend
  • Mr. Agus is my friend whom I will teach English


Ex: Mr. Yoko is my friend

His father will teach in High School

  • Mr. yoko whose father will teach in High School is my friend
  • Mr. Yoko is my friend whose father will teach in High school

Which (use for animal or things)

Ex: the book which I bought yesterday is very cheap


That (can be use for every noun : human, animal, thing)

Ex: the man that I saw yesterday will go to Medan by plane.

The book that I bought yesterday is very cheap.

What (only use if the antecedent is singular number )

Ex: this is what I like

You can buy what you like with that money



Relative pronoun in the objective case which use preposition words are with –from,-by, -in, -on, -of

Ex: Mr. Sito is my friend

I often speak English with him

  • Mr. Sito whom I often speak English with is my friend
  • Mr. Sito with whom I often speak English is my friend




Interrogative pronoun is only use for question sentences, the words only 3 : who; which; what.

Ex: -who took my pen from the table?

-which must be used for this purpose?

-what will you say to him?

Ø  “who” have cases too :

Nominative      who

Possessive      whose

Object                         whom

Ex: who is this?

Whose is this?

Whom do you call?

Which; whose; what, if follow by noun is not INTEROGATIVE PRONOUN but INTEROGATIVE ADJECTIVE.




Are pronoun with shown behavior to ourselves and there are two kind how to use.

The words : my self; ourselves; yourself; yourselves; himself; herself; itself; themselves

Ex: – I kick my self

-Mr. Gatot salps himself because he is too angry with him self



The words only each other and one another.

Each other according to Nesfield to it use for two persons and one another for more than two person.

Ex: Siti and Ali are speaking with each other.

The pupils are playing to another.


But in English book there also each other for more than two persons means in Indonesia satu sama lain.

“you must not fight with one another”

(kamu jangan berkelahi satu sama lain)




this pronoun only 3 they are : those who, it , and , one. Called in indefinite because is not have antecedent.

Ex: -those who are diligent must be cleaver

-its makes me happy to have it

-one must take care of one’s health


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